Unbiased independent, reliable evidence on agriculture in the environment
A peer-reviewed, open access, on-line journal to discuss problems confronting world agriculture and food security. Articles are based upon scientifically derived evidence and directed towards opinion formers, decision makers and practitioners. It will accept suitable articles on the climatic, ecological, economic and social interactions affecting agriculture, agroforestry, fisheries and horticulture.
Authors wishing to submit a paper should complete the form on the submit page of the web site or send a short summary in English to the Managing Editor by email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Papers should use MS Word, formatted to A4 with justified text in Calibri 12 point. Authors’ names, qualifications, honours and affiliations should be included and submission will assume that the author accepts the conditions laid down in these Instructions and that copyright is held by World Agriculture.
All articles will be reviewed by an editor with relevant experience who reserves the right to modify statements or to ask for a revision. The edited version will be sent to the senior author for his or her agreement before publication. It is essential that authors respond quickly to requests for amendments to avoid delays.
Authors should provide a photograph to be used as the icon linking to their article and should include hyperlinks from the text to their references, figures and tables.
Comments, Opinions and Letters to the Editor will be considered. These should be concise and comment on published articles, or on important subjects that have not been covered. Contributors to the Discussion Forum shall be responsible for the legal, ethical and moral liability for their comment. The editors reserve the right to monitor discussion threads and to remove inflammatory or discriminatory comment and unsuitable contributions.
All articles should be written in clear, concise British English and papers not meeting these criteria may be rejected. This page provides outline guidance; for more information follow the links for each section.
Authors should take a critical approach and advance new concepts or novel interpretations of world-wide issues. Statements of fact must be based on sound, peer-reviewed evidence for which the reference must be given. All arguments must be rational and logically derived. Papers should not exceed 2000 words. The Journal will not accept previously unpublished experimental work.
Articles should be laid out in a rational order with clear and appropriate headings and sub headings. Figures and tables should be used whenever possible and all references should use the Harvard system with superscript numbers in the text. These should be linked to the relevant reference in a discrete reference section. SI units must be used with spelling being generally that of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, so that words such as fertiliser should use ‘ise’ rather than the American ‘ize’ spelling.
Standard abbreviations (e.g. Fig. and Figs) are acceptable, but specialist abbreviations and terms should be defined in a short Glossary, immediately beneath the Abstract. Currency references should use the standard international abbreviations.
The full Latin binomial of an organism should be given at the first mention and international codes of nomenclature should be followed.
Articles will be indexed by consecutive numbers with a four digit code representing the year and paper number as yynn.
Hyphens should be avoided if possible, for example use ‘cooperate’ rather than co-operate’.
Standard deviations, standard errors of the means and “n”, the number of observations associated with each mean, should all be presented in tabular data when appropriate. Levels of significance should also be noted.
Where authors need to reproduce information protected by copyright they must obtain permission to reproduce the item before the article is published in World Agriculture.
A Glossary should be included beneath the abstract where specialist terms are defined and a hyperlink should link the first use of each such phrase to the definition.
Commercial chemicals should be referred to by their approved common names, but where a proprietary name is relevant and unavoidable it should be used with a capital initial letter and the manufacturer named at the first mention.
Dates should be expressed as day, month, year, as for example, 18th May 2017.
Billion should be expressed as thousand million (e.g. a billion hectares as 1 000 Mha) although the SI expression Gha is acceptable. Concentrations and rates of application should be clearly expressed and unambiguous, using, for example, mg/litre, or mg/L, mg/kg but not ppm.
Use numerals for specific units of measurement (e.g. 14 m, 3 ha, 2 day). For other quantities up to and including nine, spell out in full (e.g. four plots, two experiments, nine larvae), using numerals in all instances for ten or over (e.g. 20 fields). Large numbers should be separated by spaces every 000, rather than by use of a comma, e.g., 10 000.
Full stops are not used for commonly accepted abbreviations (e.g., USA, UK) or when an abbreviated word ends with the same letter as the complete word (e.g., Florida as FA, yr for year, wk for week or ca for circa) but are used when the abbreviation ends with a different letter as cv. for cultivar. Latin terms and binomials such as circa should be italicised.
US$, € and £ are acceptable for US dollars, Euro and GB £ respectively. Wherever possible financial details should be quoted in one of these currencies, although where this is not possible a standard list of abbreviations is available at <http://www.forex-rates.biz/currency-abbreviations.htm> accessed March 2011.
For example Heterodera avenae subsequent mentions may be abbreviated, e.g. H. avenae. Names should follow the appropriate international codes for nomenclature. Naturally occurring infraspecific variants should be described as varieties, as for example Medicago polymorpha var. hispida and where used repeatedly in the text variety may be abbreviated to var. or vars. The word cultivar should be restricted to forms in cultivation and which need to be propagated either by seed or vegetative means only and can be abbreviated to cv. or cvs in the text. Named cultivars should be in normal, i.e. not italicised font as for example Taxus baccata ‘Variegata’ or Taxus baccata cv. Variegata.
Sequence of headings
Approximately 250 words to provide a concise, accurate summary of the subject covered and the conclusions drawn. Bullets points may be used to improve comprehension.
What this article adds or proposed changes to policy
Below the abstract provide a synopsis of about 100 words to explain:
Why the article is important, what it shows and how it affects current views;
Key questions posed by the article;
Proposed changes to policy or practice;
Glossary and unusual abbreviations
How to cite the article
Immediately above the Introduction insert the phrase - This article should be cited as: Author (yyyy). Title. World Agriculture yynn <world-agriculture.net>
Authors should identify one or more of the following categories to identify the subject area to facilitate searches:
Biodiversity and environment
Food and nutrition
Social and economic
These will be used to categorise the article for searches and will not be included in the publication.
This should set out the background to the subject and why the review or work discussed was done.
Body of article
Describe what was done, how and why in sections each of which is headed by terms defined by the nature of the paper, for example: Review of evidence, Present situation, Problems and Resolution.
Discussion or Conclusions
The paper should conclude with a section to put the information into context and identify what else may need to be done and why.
Title, Primary heading centred, bold Verdana 14 point
Identify name and email of corresponding author
Secondary headings Left justified, bold Verdana 12 point
Tertiary level Left justified, Verdana 12 point
Quaternary, left justified, Verdana 12 point
Figures, Tables and Photographs should be included in the text. Each should be numbered sequentially with the Figure or Table legend in italics. Figures and tables should be submitted in Excel and the text reference hyperlinked to the relevant table or figure. Legends should be clearly worded and unambiguous so that figures and tables will be comprehensible without reference to the text.
Tables and figures must be numbered using Arabic numerals in sequence. Use a horizontal line to separate column headings from data and at the bottom of the table and do not use lines between columns. Excessive numbers of columns should be avoided.
All photographs should be in colour with suitable high definition (>5 million pixels/photo) as jpg files with the essential information included in the properties box for the file. Authors should identify one illustration for use as the icon for their article on the website after publication.
All references in the text should be given as superscript numbers, although the author(s) name may also be given, if helpful. References should be numbered sequentially in the order in which they appear, from 1 with all subsequent references to the same paper using the same number. Where more than one paper is cited for a particular comment, the numbers should be listed in numerical order and separated by commas. Use left justified text in the references section
Each reference cited in the text should be hyperlinked to the relevant number in the list of references in the Reference Section, where papers should be listed in numerical order using the Harvard system:
1. Anon (yyyy). Web page title. <http://www.organisation/page/file_or_other_address> accessed dd mmm yyyy., DOI
2. Klass, D W (ed.) (1979). Current practice of clinical electroencephalography. New York, Raven Press, 1979 ISBN n nn nnn nnn nnn.
3. Organisation (yyyy). Web page title. <http://www.organisation/page/file_or_other_address> accessed dd mmm yyyy.
4. Regan, D & Smith, A (1979). Electrical responses evoked from the human brain. Scientific American, 241, 134-52.
5. Smil, V (2011). Nitrogen cycle and world food production. World Agriculture, 2 (1) 9-13.
6. Blogs, P (2010). Personal communication.
7. Baggins, B (1991). Title of paper. In: Proceedings of Whatever Conference--- (ed., R.E. Blogs), Name of sponsor or organiser, Place, 6-8 June 1991, pp.91-4
Whenever possible each reference should by hyperlinked to the original article or website. When a reference includes an issue number include the volume number in bold and the issue number in brackets, between the volume and the first and last page numbers.